Wife of Septimius
Julia Domna was one
of the most powerful people in the Roman Empire during the period from
A.D. 193 to 217. While her emperor husband, Septimius Severus, was
fighting rivals, pursuing rebels, and subduing revolts in the far corners
of the empire, Julia Domna was left to administer the vast Roman Empire.
She proved to be an able administrator, playing one powerful general or
senator against another, while keeping herself from falling into the many
traps set by political enemies at court. Septimius often sought her advice,
as did Caracalla when he ascended the throne after his brother's murder..
She was also a patron of the arts and invited the most brilliant
philosophers, writers, and other artists in the Roman world to grace her
court and keep learning and culture alive in a world that was destined to
fall onto chaos within less than a generation.
Julia was a woman
who was accustomed to power, but this came to an end after the murder of
her son Caracalla in A.D. 217. Hers had also been a life filled with many
sorrows. Caracalla had murdered his brother Geta in her private apartments
even as the younger son sought protection in Julia's arms. After Macrinus
had murdered Caracalla and seized the throne, he sent her away from
Antioch after it was reported that Julia was inciting troops to rebel
against him. At this time, she was believed to be about fifty years old
and was suffering from a painful illness, probably cancer of the breast.
Rather than face exile and the humiliation of being reduced to the status
of a private citizen, she elected to commit suicide by starving herself.